Varicose veins of the lower extremities

About half of the adult population knows about the varicose veins of the lower extremities from the first hands. Varicose veins often suffer for the fair sex, due to hormonal changes and a love for uncomfortable, too tight clothes and shoes. The first signs of varicose veins usually remain unnoticed, however, are not only cosmetic problems but also serious complications that can greatly affect their way of life.

The causes of the disease

varicose veins of the lower extremities

The blood that circulates throughout the body through our life, but that had risen from the lower extremities to the heart, veins have valves that prevent backflow. Over time, it can lose tone, causing blood vessels become more fragile and stretched, more often affects the veins located in the legs and feet, but there are also lesions in the stomach and pelvic organs.

The main causes for the appearance of varicose veins of the lower extremities:

  • Lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle;
  • Prolonged exposure to standing or sitting, often sitting in the position of the legs;
  • Heavy physical exertion, especially for professional athletes;
  • Hereditary factors, abnormal vascular tissue;
  • Hormonal changes in the body: pregnancy, menopause, hormone therapy;
  • Improper diet: the abuse of fatty and harmful foods, cakes and fast food;
  • Overweight;
  • Smoking and alcohol consumption;
  • Wearing close-fitting clothing and uncomfortable shoes with high heels.

Signs of varicose veins

The first signs of varicose veins of the lower limbs, often go unnoticed. But at this stage of the varicose veins, it is recommended to take measures to prevent the occurrence of complications. In the later stages it is easy to notice the photo of varicose veins of the lower extremities.

See a vascular surgeon, if you have the following symptoms:

  • A lot of weight in the lower limbs;
  • Swelling;
  • Feel tired legs;
  • Burning sensation and pain in the lower extremities;
  • Cramps in the legs at night;
  • Protruding spider veins, varicose manifestation of the capillary network;
  • Discoloration of the skin on the limbs, pigmentation.


The deterioration of varicose veins of the lower extremities is most often in the evening, in the heat and after exercise. Then begin to appear enlarged veins on the skin, in the later stage it appears the cries, the wounds, it grows scar tissue from subcutaneous fat.

Stage of development of varicose veins

There are several stages in the development of varicose veins, each of which has certain characteristics:

  1. In the early stage (compensated) varicose is characterized by the appearance of cosmetic defects on the skin, spider veins, any discomfort that they bring;
  2. In the second phase, the varicose veins occur easy pain, especially at night, a little swollen in the evening and the blood vessels become more visible;
  3. In the third stage, the symptoms are obvious is the weight in the legs, swelling, fatigue and burning sensation in the muscles, night cramps in your calves are becoming more and more painful, changing the colour of pigmentation of the skin;
  4. Decompensation – the fourth stage in the development of varicose veins can not go unnoticed: dramatically increases the size of the veins, swollen feet constantly in the feet and ankles, feet, often pain, cramps and itching. Formation of trophic ulcers and thrombophlebitis.

Possible complications

symptoms of varicose veins

Many patients do not pay attention to varicose, considering that it is only a cosmetic error, which will not bring any serious consequences. But this is a misconception, varicose veins are dangerous and may severely ruin the life of the patient.

If left untreated, can develop serious disease, such as thrombophlebitis (inflammation of the vein wall), thrombosis (blood clots), can cause bleeding from the varices. Because of this, the skin color may become blue or red. If a clot breaks off,you can come into the lungs, where is the complete or partial closing of vessels, this will lead to the development of severe disease – pulmonary embolism, which often ends with death.

Wounds on the skin heal more, breaks down the process of regeneration of epidermis, varicose veins, resulting in venous ulcers. Often joins the inflammation of the varicose dermatitis and eczema, you can get a secondary infection, which can cause poisoning of the blood, sepsis, and can lead to amputation of the limb.

Treatment of varicose veins

Just like any disease, varicose easiest to resolve at an early stage. For the elimination of varicose veins with conservative treatment, including medications, adherence to wearing compression hosiery and traditional recipes. When running varicose baths of the lower extremities surgery is recommended, there are several ways that perform the surgery, including treatment of injuries.

Conservative ways

No matter in which stage of the disease are encouraged to review food, add in the diet more fresh fruits and vegetables, reduce the consumption of junk food. You should also light exercises that strengthen the muscles of the lower extremities.

Excellent results shows the treatment of varicose, completed with massage and wash. Improve blood circulation and stimulate venous valves.

Popular recipes

Traditional methods work best when the initial varicose or combined therapy. It is recommended to be used as tools for internal use and for local use.

  • Mix equal proportions of powdered classic soap, lard, onions and millet. The resulting mixture was applied to the entire lower limb at night, then wrap in a cloth or tape to create special effects;
  • Pour 10 chestnuts or 50 g peel 500 ml vodka and place the liquid in a glass bowl. Let stand in a tightly stoppered bottle in a dark place, periodically shake the bottle. After 21 days, strain the infusion. You have to take before meals to 30 drops, diluted in 2 tablespoons water. This will help to strengthen blood vessels and stimulate blood circulation.


One of the alternative methods, eliminates varicose is hirudotherapy – the use of leeches. This method of treatment is only possible thrombophlebitis. However, there is a risk of infection and the development of venous bleeding, so this method is frowned upon by most doctors.


diagnosis and treatment of varicose veins

In more extreme cases, the treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs may be the only surgical. Bulging blood vessels does not return to its original position in the conservative ways, therefore it is necessary for the execution of the operation. Modern methods almost do not bring any negative consequences for the organism, have the minimum period of rehabilitation.

Indications for surgical treatment:

  • A significant increase in the blood vessels under the skin;
  • A number of sores;
  • The risk of thromboembolism;
  • Thrombophlebitis;
  • Swelling, leg fatigue and sharp pain.

Contraindications for surgery include pregnancy, infectious diseases, coronary artery disease, pyoderma and eczema.

Laser photocoagulation

The type of operation, in which there is no need to use a scalpel: in the affected vein injection of the laser beam, that seals the internal wall of the vessel. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia and lasts more than 2 hours. It is recommended that you use the capillaries in the size of up to 1 cm, but can be held and with a larger diameter. No recovery period, immediately after the treatment the patient can return to normal life.

Laser therapy is prescribed to patients with cardio-vascular diseases, venereal diseases, high blood pressure, and in cases when surgery is contraindicated.


Laser photocoagulation helps not only get rid of varicose veins of the lower extremities, but also from trophic ulcers.

Radiofrequency ablation

Under the influence of microwave radio frequency closes the lumen in a patient's vein without incisions and skin injury. Therefore, the method of radiofrequency ablation is minimally invasive, requires no recovery period and is performed under local anesthesia. This procedure leaves no scars and signs of tampering, to ensure that it has the ability to work.

The course lasts only 7 days and the effect lasts for more than 30 minutes one vein.


This procedure can be carried out in any stage of the disease, when the size of the vessels does not exceed 1 cm in diameter. The method consists in this, that in the vein injected a small amount of sclerosant is a specific substance which bonds the venous lumen, after which the capillary is no longer involved in the process of blood flow.

The rehabilitation period is missing after the manipulation can be directly walk. Within one month after the completion of the sclerotherapy, it is recommended to wear shapewear.

The classic phlebectomy

With obvious signs of venous insufficiency sometimes carried out a classic operation for the removal of veins, but in recent years it is often replaced by other, safer types of intervention.

During the surgery removes the damaged superficial or deep and normalizes the blood flow in the extremities. This method involves the hospitalization and prolonged recovery period – up to six months.

the prevention of varicose veins

Varicose veins of the lower extremities affects men and women of all ages. This disease spoils the appearance of the feet, it brings discomfort, and if left untreated, can and does lead to serious consequences such as amputation and death. In the initial phase of the development of the disease, many patients confuse varicose veins with the usual foot fatigue, making the disease continues to develop, it is not yet manifest its characteristic symptoms. There are various methods of treatment include surgery and conservative methods.