Varicose veins is not a disease, but a symptom associated with vascular malformations, which are the result of excessive enlargement of blood vessels. Varicose veins most often affect the lower extremities, but can occur in the rectum and esophagus. Less common is a disease of the bladder and female reproductive organs.
Varicose veins called General diseases of the blood vessels that appear through the skin and swells the veins. It should be noted that no treatment of chronic venous disease, which can lead to serious complications.
These changes are painful, exhausting, because it causes disturbances in the functioning of the heart and the circulatory system.
What are varicose veins
In order to understand what is varicose veins, it is necessary to know the functions of arteries and veins. Vienna – the blood vessels, the blood flowing to the heart. This is made possible through valves that are closed when the blood runs up returns.
A good blood supply under the condition that these valves operate properly. Some people are born with faulty valves, in others they are weakened in the result of lifestyle – bad eating habits, profession, poor physical activity, disease.
When blood flows through your veins down, its pressure increases, the veins swell and swell back to its original shape.
Types of varicose veins
1. Varicose veins of the lower extremities.
Causing disorders of the venous circulation in the lower extremities and injury of the venous valves are due to congestion and high blood pressure in the veins. Is a symptom of chronic venous disease.
The most common causes:
- a sedentary lifestyle;
- pregnancy – enlarged uterus compresses the pelvic veins, resulting in stagnation of blood in the veins;
- advanced age;
- genetic predisposition;
- long-term immobilization (immobility) due to other diseases.
A fairly common disease, which occurs due to pressure on the rectal veins. This can be caused by:
- frequent constipation;
- sedentary work;
- diseases of the liver;
- elevated blood pressure;
- sexual acts.
With age, the tissue that keeps the rectum and the veins begins to weaken, and varicose outside the anus, which is associated with painful symptoms. The first symptom is rectal bleeding that occurs during bowel movements.
3. Varicose veins of the esophagus.
Cause varicose changes of the gastrointestinal tract are the liver disease, especially cirrhosis, acquired as a result of viral hepatitis or excessive alcohol consumption.
For a long time, the disease is asymptomatic and is manifested during the breaks of the arteries, which means the occurrence of uncontrollable bleeding, which is often accompanied by vomiting with blood, or the colour of coffee grounds.
Significant blood loss causes a reduction in blood pressure and increased heart rate. Varices of the gastrointestinal tract can be manifested as jaundice and ascites. Bleeding due to varicose veins of the esophagus requires immediate medical help.
It seems on the veins that collect blood from the testicles and scrotum in men. Occurs due to congenital or acquired valvular insufficiency in the veins. The reason for this may be kidney cancer or kidney disease thrombosis vascular.
5. Varicose veins of the uterus and vagina.
This type of varicose veins occur during pregnancy because of the constant pressure of the growing uterus on the pelvis. Also, the formation of varicose veins of the bladder.
Risk factors for development of varicose veins
Some factors that increase the risk of varicose veins, disruption of blood flow in the lower extremities. They impede the flow of blood through the veins, leading to an increased retention of blood in the work of the authority.
A lot of factors that are outside the control of the patient, for example, genetic or hormonal disorders. However, the appearance of varicose veins have the greatest impact on the way of life. With proper diet, regular exercise is possible to overcome non-modifiable risk factors.
Age and work
The probability of occurrence of varicose veins increases with age, particularly after 40 years. This is the occupational disease of hairdressers, dentists, doctors, waiters, salespersons, that is, people of those professions that require long hours of standing without movement. The vertical position contributes to the stagnation of blood in the limbs and limited movement of the calf muscles, which causes disruption of the muscle valve.
Also susceptible economists, specialists in IT-technologies, employees. Sitting position, in which the legs bent at the knees or crossed, contributes to the obstruction of outflow of blood.
Unhealthy way of life influence the formation of varicose veins. Hot baths, solariums, obesity, all these situations cause the varicose veins and reduce the blood flow to the heart. Smoking contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease, therefore the risk of varicose veins in this group of people increased.
The use of birth control and hormone replacement therapy significantly increases the possibility for the occurrence of varicose veins.
In addition, trends in the occurrence of varicose veins is dependent on other factors, such as:
• race – white more prone to the disease than blacks;
• gender – women are five times more likely to suffer from varicose veins than men;
• history of pregnancy;
• hormonal disorders;
• lack of exercise;
• wearing close-fitting clothing;
• shoes with high heels;
• a diet with a low content of fiber and vitamin C.
Symptoms of varicose veins
Symptoms of varicose veins are very different. These may occur together or separately. In the early stages, patients often experience unpleasant sensations in the legs in a sitting or standing position.
The most common of these are:
- the burden and feel excessive swelling, which disappears after staying in the position with raised legs;
- persistent pain in the lower extremities after prolonged walking or sitting;
- occasional pain in the veins;
- swelling of the lower limbs, which appears at the end of the day, it is especially seen around the ankles;
- restless leg syndrome, painful muscle cramps, especially at night.
In later stages of the disease, apparently due to the large trunks of trunk varicose veins of the lower extremities and subcutaneous veins. They are soft and painless, and the rate of charging is dependent on the position of the limbs, also receive sensitisation in places varicose.
With the development of varicose veins, increases venous insufficiency of the lower limbs, which is equipped with a large number of complications. The most common are thrombosis and haemorrhage, chronic inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous ulcers, pulmonary embolism.
Symptoms that should be cause for a doctor's visit:
- muscle cramps;
- pain in the legs and feet;
- the appearance of spider veins.
Varicose veins of the pelvis most often develops in women in anticipation of the second child (or subsequent children).
One of the symptoms showing that the disease is constant pain in the lower part of the abdomen, lasting several months. Develop similar to varicose veins of the lower extremities.
Is characterized by symptoms, pressure on the bladder, heaviness in the perineum, dull pain in the lower part of the abdomen or sacrum, which increases during pregnancy, sexual intercourse or menstruation.
Treatment of varicose veins
On the basis of the modern way of treatment is appropriate diagnosis of the disease and use the least invasive, but effective treatment for veins on the legs.
There are many different ways to reduce the appearance of varicose veins, such as:
- of medicinal products;
The goal of therapy is to facilitate the blood flow to the affected extremities. One of the main ways is to change the way of life. Recommended for:
- increased physical activity – walking, Cycling, swimming; you should avoid sports that increase the efficiency of the intra-abdominal pressure, such as: weights, rowing;
- rest with legs elevated;
- avoid prolonged standing or sitting without moving, especially with crossed legs;
- maintenance of ideal body weight;
- a normal diet with enough protein to avoid constipation;
- wear shoes with a heel not higher than 3-4 cm;
- refrain from hot baths, saunas, tanning beds and prolonged exposure to high temperatures.
Conservative treatment is often recommended for patients who for various reasons cannot undergo surgical treatment, for example, women during pregnancy or breast-feeding.
In the initial phase, the effective treatment for folk remedies in the form of tinctures of horsetail, wild Rue, Arnica, an extract of horse chestnut.
This method is used in the milder stages of the disease. Compresses the outer side of the limbs, which increases pressure in the veins and reduces the blood stagnation. The patient wears a special compression socks of a certain size, which is determined by the doctor. Some patients use an elastic bandage. It is recommended to use these socks during the day and removed at night. This method must be supported by appropriate medicines.
In addition to the basic therapy, which treats the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Pharmacology helps to strengthen and seal the walls of blood vessels, increases circulation, has anti-inflammatory action.
1. Pills, pills and ointments.
In this group are drugs that are made up of diosmin is a substance which reduces the permeability of small blood vessels; improves venous blood circulation, reduces the tension of the walls of blood vessels and has anti-inflammatory action. Other drugs include troxerutin, which increases the elasticity of the small blood capillaries and improves the blood circulation in the tissues.
It is a very popular treatment method, as it lasts long and is very simple to use. At its core – introduction into the affected vein a special drug that helps reduce the local inflammation and treat veins. Rare side effects also include deep vein thrombosis, allergic reactions, neurological disorders, skin necrosis, inflammation of the surface veins, hyperpigmentation.
Laser ablation and radiofrequency ablation radio waves
The treatment of varicose veins is often done with the help of waves of different frequencies. Its operation causes an increase in varicose veins. Laser therapy replaces the painful surgery to remove the destroyed veins.
It can be used at each stage of venous insufficiency. The advantages of this method are:
- low risk of complications;
- high efficiency;
- a short time of operation;
- minor complications after surgery;
- fast recovery.
The indications for surgical treatment are:
- relapsing inflammation of the blood vessels;
- complications of varicose veins in the form of ulcers;
- the low efficiency of other methods of treatment;
- extensive changes, resulting in serious cosmetic defects.
Depending on the extent of the disease, this method can involve partial or complete removal of the surface veins, ligation, removal or the end of the game the veins.
Surgical treatment is contraindicated in patients with bleeding disorders, deep venous disease and limb ischemia. Surgery does not remedy the cause of the disease and its impact on complications.
In men with varicocele, the treatment is often carried out with the help of sclerotherapy. Hemorrhoids effectively treated with special ointments, in combination with exercises, lifestyle changes, diet and surgical methods.
Here are a few ways to help prevent varicose veins:
- to keep the weight;
- sedentary work often change the position of the feet, shifting weight from one leg to the other. Women wear special socks that are a good influence on the circulation;
- not to cross your legs as this impedes the flow of blood from the legs to the heart;
- choose the right shoes;
- do not wear tight pants, socks;
The best in the prevention of varicose veins on the legs is a diet based on large amounts of fiber, fresh fruits and vegetables, adequate fluid intake (1.5–2 liters per day). You should limit the consumption of fat, fried food. You also have to exclude Smoking, as this seriously damages the blood vessels.
Varicose veins is a chronic disease and its treatment can take a very long time. Prevention, minor changes in lifestyle and habits can help prevent disease.
At the first sign of varicose veins, it is better to consult a doctor, using the fact that the disease is in the initial stage be cured easier, faster and less traumatic.