Causes, symptoms and complications of varicose veins

Varicose veins is a swelling of the peripheral vessels under the skin, most often on the surface of the leg muscles, the veins look like swollen and very soft, bluish color. Nodes are established at the same time, the valve apparatus is destroyed. The outflow of blood in the veins can't go standard. When the flap valves are closed, the problems started. The blood does not move, it will come up. Veins due to stagnation of blood under pressure.

varicose veins

When it gets high – because of his blood, as if pushed, and excess stretching of the venous walls, which originally have a different thickness. The vessels stretch. Their edges pressed against the skin and become visible. This formed the characteristic "bands" (spider veins). If the vessel is visible through the layer of the epidermis – it is therefore weakened. The thicker the vein, the more noticeable its blue color. Created nodules that are noticeable on the legs.

This disease is quite known since ancient times. Archaeologists met the first mention in this area in the laws on medicine, which was founded in the Byzantine country. In the hands of the Egyptian pharaohs were elastic bandages, which help in the prevention of the disease. Methods of treatment tried to access experts in medicine - Hippocrates, Paracelsus and Avicenna.

This pathology is very common. From it suffers every fourth inhabitant of the planet. Among the main factors of development – lack of development of connective tissue. For the development of varicose veins is a necessary predisposing conditions. This partly explains why among the visitors phlebologist so many women. In your body the restoration of hormones is active.

It is very important to take care of the condition of blood vessels. Bring a lot of anxiety, starting with the unsightly appearance of the legs. This is a big risk for health and even life. When the disease reaches the started state, start its complications. Meanwhile, if however, that doctors at the time of the disease is difficult to get rid of. If it is time to begin treatment with surgery is not needed. This is the best way to make the veins disappear on their own, which has a normal appearance.

According to statistics, varicose veins are suffering from 18-20% of the population and almost 50 % of patients who are at an early stage, are not even aware of, that is seriously sick. Most often this disease affects women.

Causes of varicose veins

Causes of varicose veins can be a long time in a standing position, obesity, pregnancy, long-wearing socks or stockings with tight elastic bands, and a congenital weakness of the connective tissue. The above applies to the main reasons for the development of the disease.

Varicose veins are formed when the wrong course of blood through the veins. The scientists researched the causes of these diseases, not, are part of any other living species to such an extent, suffering. Among the identified causes:

  • Bipedalism. The researchers explain the diseases of the lower limbs excessive pressure on them in the body. Post blood it takes, until the muscles of the heart. Especially at risk are those who spend on their feet much of the time.
  • Predisposition genetically. Most people who have this disease is a factor, which is transmitted from the parents. Statistics is in this case very clearly – infants whose parents have suffered from this disease, the likelihood to get varicose veins increases to 70%. But this risk can be avoided if you do not create factors. Hereditary varicose veins are often manifested at a very early age.
  • The nature of the work, the standard way of life. The lack of mobility of many contemporary professions that have a certain risk. The doctors suggested using the term "computer"..
  • Disorders of the endocrine and hormonal system. Due to the particularities of the body in women, the periods of hormonal irregularity causes for the stagnation of the blood. For them, the most dangerous periods – puberty, in pregnancy, in the time after giving birth. Also a dangerous time, when menopause occurs. This sexual category of the patients appealed to the doctors 2-3 times more often. On the women's bodies do not have enough of the hormones called estrogens. Instead, what prevails is the so-called hormone of the corpus luteum. It is believed that it has a muscle relaxing effect. This contributes to varicose veins.
  • Obstacles in the movement of blood through the veins. Occur as a purely mechanical formation of a blood clot, the uterus and the tumor.
  • Stress and nervous disorders that affect the condition of the vessel. In the wall of the veins have nerve endings, which give them elasticity. When increasing pressure, exposure to toxins, alcohol grill the vessels lose tone and expanding.
  • Arterial-venous passages. May be caused by the pressure in the arterial blood flow cells.
  • The so-called muscle pump in the calf muscles, and are constantly the need to be activated. It is very important to stay healthy, preventing long-term illnesses, cough and seizure.

Factors that contribute to the development of varicose veins, it is possible to beat both, to make sure their health.

Symptoms of varicose veins

causes of varicose veins

That would not miss the onset of the disease, you need to know the first signs of varicose veins and the time to take the necessary measures.

The main symptoms of varicose veins are:

  • Pain in the legs, sensation of heat, and sometimes burning sensation through the veins of the legs;
  • Weight in the legs;
  • In the evening swelling in the legs;
  • On night cramps in the legs;
  • The enlarged veins;
  • Calf leather is a dark color, there are o-rings, can be wound.

It is also possible to indicate the following symptoms of varicose veins:

  • There are manifestations that only covers the area of the popliteal fossa, and the rear surface of the leg. In thick skin, because with excessive hairiness of the feet, it shows less.
  • Easy to detect – the affected veins palpation appear wavy.
  • If the patient is lying lifting legs – mesh, it disappears, and in a vertical position, again to thicken.
  • Felt kinda weight in the legs, pain, boring in nature, seizures. Often the patient complains of a burning sensation. Especially symptoms worsen in the evening or after a period of prolonged standing.
  • The legs can also swell, particularly in the area of soft tissue. They also occur in the ankles, in the lower parts of the legs.

These are the main symptoms of varicose veins. Are even worse if left untreated disease on time. Trophic changes, which are propagated on the skin of the legs and feet. The epidermis becomes dry, the blue shade, is easy swelling. Due to the progression of the varicose veins are observed:

  • Pigmentation.
  • Indurate (seal).
  • Trophic ulcers.
  • Eating disorders of the skin.

If they are third-party symptoms of varicose veins, such as temperature or weakness – then the disease has passed the stage of complications. There are enough rare symptoms, such as bleeding on the page break. Most often occur at night.

Complications of varicose veins

Complications of varicose veins take painful shape. Are the easily identifiable manifestations:

  • Acute thrombophlebitis of superficial veins.
  • Trophic ulcers.
  • Phlebothrombosis.
  • Bleeding varices.

Acute thrombophlebitis following differences:

  • redness,
  • pain
  • noticing the seal after the passage of subcutaneously located blood vessels.

The resulting blood clots can log in favourable during the process, and then on the background of the treatments are organised (sprout of connective tissue), and then eliminated. For this reason, begin the process of recanalization of the vessel. Confirmation can also be completely blocked. Because of this, there is a risk that it will be game over and sclerosis of the affected veins.

With the progression of the disease are factors associated with other diseases. For him, in the next stage of the disease. Includes the deep venous system, it begins the disease of the pulmonary artery. If you want to be treated for possible occlusion of the vessels in the body, when the blood flow stops and begins to gangrene.

Chronic venous insufficiency

The development goes through several stages. The initial are considered the minimal changes in hemodynamics, which is formed horizontally oriented vein-venous reflux. At the same time, the valves the communicating vessels begin to suffer from the disease, and disease that captures the region of the passages from the saphenous veins, extending to the deepest of them.

There are four stages, characteristic of chronic venous insufficiency:

  • Nothing, without clear clinical symptoms. Very little swelling is expressed as the apparent ectasia of the superficial veins.
  • The first, with noticeable varicose veins of the lower extremities. Not trophic disorders.
  • Second, with the obvious growth of blood vessels. Forms the characteristic of the nodes, highly resistant edema syndrome, irregular hyperpigmentation, lesions of eczema, trophic ulcers. If you have an ultrasound study, it is possible to identify valvular insufficiency of vessels of various types of collectors - superficial and deep.
  • In the third, in which the symptoms listed above are supplemented with the persistent appearance of trophic disorders, which do not apply to conservative treatment.

Chronic venous insufficiency stand their symptoms:

symptoms of varicose veins
  • itching,
  • pain
  • night time cramps in the limbs,
  • swelling,
  • the stagnant capital formation in the soft tissues,
  • can be ulcers.

This pathology is characterized by specific pain syndrome – increases, if the patient has a lower extremity in a position of coercive type, due to the use of elastic compression, walking, walking. There is a form of edema, which proves that the deep vein is affected.

If affected, only the surface vessels can be diagnosed transitional pasty ankles, which is based on a vertical position. The lower limbs are in a state of discomfort, caused by chronic venous insufficiency which makes it impossible to live a normal life. Physical activity is markedly reduced, patients experience tension, emotional disorder, inappropriate anxiety.

Reduced efficiency also leads to certain consequences. Suffers from self-esteem and social activities. It is important to relate to medicine, in particular to the doctor.

Thrombophlebitis of superficial veins

The essence of the pathology is generated in the blood, piles, eliminate differences in the subcutaneously located blood vessels. At the same time inflammation of the venous walls of the aseptic type. The viscosity of the blood increases, venous return barrier.

The place of localization of disease often lower third of the thigh, may be the upper third of the tibia. Theoretically, this disease affects each area of the body. Diseases, particularly is subjected to great saphenous vein along with its tributaries (95%). On a small – accounts for only 5% of cases.

Professionals can easily establish a disease, because the clinical manifestations of thrombophlebitis of superficial veins bright enough. The classic symptoms are as follows:

  • hyperemia (redness) over the varicose changed veins
  • pain,
  • the general health does not change significantly (low-grade fever, weakness),
  • if you touch the affected vessel can determine the compaction of the soft tissues,
  • local affordable by means of.

With the development of pathology, it covers more of the veins. 10% of these cases leads to damage to nearby blood vessels. Can occur pulmonary embolism.

The diagnosis of thrombosis of this type is carried out in several stages:

  • To determine the exact location of the top of a new clot.
  • Identifies the range and characteristics of the pathological changes.
  • The definition of the risk of complications, dangerous to life, with the help of ultrasound scanning of the vessels on the basis of the color mapping of blood flow.
  • The definition of thrombosis by imaging the inferior Vena cava and the iliac vessels of a specific study.
  • Unwilling patients subjected to Radiocontrast phlebography.
  • A blood test, which in the standard cases, said about the moderate leukocytosis, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, increase in the concentration of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein varieties.
  • Coagulation is shifted to the hypercoagulable state.

For the treatment of thrombophlebitis of superficial veins of unacceptable delay. At the first typical signs, immediately go to the experts. This vascular pathology in the acute form, which needs treatment in the hospital with emergency interventions.

treatment of varicose veins

This is necessary to determine the optimal motor mode, for the calculation of the formula for compression therapy. Surgical intervention is required only in certain cases, for example, in a rising varieties of thrombophlebitis of the subcutaneous base of the trunk of the large veins, when the peak is located over the middle third of the thigh.