Varicose veins

Varicose veins (varices) represents a chronic disease in which the veins are extension nodes, which occurs simultaneously with the breach of blood flow and stasis in the venous system. Varicose veins, symptoms that develop in accordance with the effects of a number of predisposing causes, which is manifested in the form of development characteristic of the protrusions are large, tortuous and thick veins, affecting the lower extremities, because it is in the region of the injury and will be discussed in our today's article.

A general description of the

varicose veins

Varicose veins are not uncommon. Thus, in accordance with the variety of information which is possible to allocate the average value for the frequency of occurrence of these diseases in accordance with the sex. So, approximately 89% of the varicose veins on the legs face women and about 66% of men, these indicators are particularly relevant for developed countries. In the context of the large-scale study carried out in Edinburgh in 1999, it was found that varicose veins, it is important for women 40% and 32% of men. On the basis of studies in Moscow in 2004, was found to be a chronic disease with damage to the blood vessels of the lower extremities is important for 50% of men and 67% women. Approximately the same picture was obtained for research on the Kamchatka Peninsula a few years later. Amazing that in the recent years is increasingly considered, pathology, diagnosis among school-age children.

In addition to those already noticed by the reader of the tendency of women to develop varicose veins of the lower extremities, may also add, that it is the age of it also works as a special factor. So, after 45 years with the Party, suffering from varicose veins, it is much more likely, although, again, in more younger age is a disease to exclude is, unfortunately, also is not necessary.

Varicose veins on the legs: how is this disease

In particular, in this chapter we will get acquainted with the specifics of the mechanism, which provides the basis for the development of varicose veins. As a releaser considered a violation of the relevant work of venous valves with the onset of reverse flow of blood, it is defined as the reflux. In the cellular level, which is the result of such a breach of psychological disequilibrium that occurs between the collagen, elastic fibers in the vein wall and muscle cells.

In the initial phase, taking into account the availability of the risk factors at the genetic level, and when exposed to the trigger factors (as one of them, for example, can mean a long stay in a standing position, etc) is characterized by the fact that in a slow down venous the flow of blood. This is accompanied by changes of these parameters, such as shear-stress, which means a combination of more indicators, relevant for the flow in the blood vessels, this parameter, however, reacts with the endothelium. Recall that on the General endothelium is a single layer, the layer on the basis of the flat-type cells mezenhimnogo of origin, which provides vystlannye the inner surface of lymphatic and blood vessels and the heart cavities. The reaction of the endothelial cells occurs in all of these changes, which occur in water, which corresponds to the reaction mechanism, which is called "leukocyte rolling".

At the moment not fully understand the interaction of white blood cells, anchored to the endothelium, however, appears to "skate" across its surface. The longer action is the triggering factor is fairly solid their fixation on the endothelial cells, which is the basis for the activation of the inflammatory process. This process is distributed through the venous bed of the lower limbs, this causes disruption of the endothelial cells, gradually, the vein walls are treated to beat all of its thickness. Especially fast this process develops under conditions of venous valves, which are characterized by special vulnerability of exposure to mechanical stress.

The original is to be defeated those of the valves, which are subjected to the most mechanical stress. Abnormal ejection of blood in this case is carried out through the mouth of the small and great saphenous veins, in some embodiments, the pathological process, which is through the large veins. Due to occur in the surface veins of excess blood volume, venous wall gradually exposed to hyperextension. As a result, blood, which is located in the environment of superficial venous channel in the total volume begins to accumulate, and then, in escalating quantities, continue to the outflow of blood through the large veins deep in the development of the system taking into account the effects, bloating. This, however, raises the dilatation of the large veins (i.e., the extension to them), coupled with valvular insufficiency.

The work of the venous muscle pumps along with descent of blood into the subcutaneous network, which occurs through lost the corresponding ability of large vessels. This leads to a so-called "horizontal reflux", because of the investment, which decreases the ejection fraction during systole from the venous muscle pump (combined with the ejection process at a certain point, the blood in the aorta to the proper state of the heart muscle during the heartbeat). In the surface direction, while the additional blood volume. In the background of these processes the efficiency of the venous muscle pump is lost.

causes of varicose veins

For the further development of the dynamic form of venous hypertension, where the walk is accompanied by the reduction of pressure on such figures, which provide an adequate level of perfusion (here is the passage) of blood through the tissue. This image is in the pathological course of the disease, because this develops venous insufficiency in the chronic form of its manifestation. She initially accompanied by the appearance of the swelling, and then in hypodermis and begin to get elements of the blood, such as leukocytes and erythrocytes, which is already in the lead to hyperpigmentation. Further preservation of the actual violations in connection with the stasis of blood and microcirculation, as well as their deepening leads to destruction of the skin followed by formation of trophic ulcers.

Varicose veins: causes

All the diseases that are traditional in their treatment of the accompanied by the release of the reasons and factors that serve as triggers, and varicose veins are certainly the exception at this point is not. Heredity, as well as the contribution that it makes to the development of this disease at the moment by far the experts are released. It is known that some families for several generations, you could be faced with this disease, but at the moment it is accepted, if they consider that the dominant factors in the development of the disease, peculiarities of diet, hormones and lifestyle of patients.

As one of the main factors, for example, is considered obese.In addition, the increase in the incidence of these diseases, such as varicose veins, increases proportionately with an increase in patient severity of this factor, i.e., with increasing degree of obesity. Quite often, as obesity-related factors, it is considered a sedentary lifestyle combined with poor diet (or are treated, not according to them). In addition, industrialized countries are now characterized by the dominance in the diet of the population of products with a high degree of processing, which is not always combined with a sufficient intake of dietary fiber. This vegetable fiber from the fruits and raw vegetables provide a sufficient degree of strengthening of vascular walls. At the same time with their help is guaranteed, with the exception of the appropriate procedures for such problems as the development of chronic constipation, while the closure is one of the main reasons for the increase in intra-abdominal pressure and the development of varicose veins in the background.

Features of workflow and also play an important role in the development of varicose veins. In view of the fact that the main part of our time passes in the occupation of a certain position (standing up or sitting, which caused at work, occupational activities, for example), it makes sense to emphasise the importance of the negative impact due to this on-valve apparatus veins. Not less unfavorable background for the development of the disease, it is considered heavy work activities, in which the load is applied erratically (for example, the activities associated with lifting of heavy loads), which is also detrimental to the lower limbs. It should also be noted that there is no less an important role for the impact of the valve apparatus veins and with frequent transitions and in the summer, because they are also associated with the development of stagnation in the leg veins in the blood, which consequently increases the risk for venous disease.

The next is to emphasise the role of elements of the wardrobe in the development of varicose veins. For example, in accordance with the fashion trends of the very few people to think about what might be wrong with underwear. Not entirely true, normal, and close, and its role consists in particular the impact on the veins in the inguinal folds. Wearing corsets elicit increased intra-abdominal pressure, which in turn determines the relevance of the recommendations as part of the permanent inadmissibility of wearing them. And, finally, shoes. In the context of varicose veins it is important to consider that high heels are harmful due to the corresponding loads, such as hazardous and shoes, with uncomfortable insoles.

Pregnancy, as the pregnancy is repeated, it is regarded as proven risk factor for later development of venous disease. Due to the increase of the uterus is the subject of the increase in intra-abdominal pressure, and due to the influence of the hormone progesterone has a negative impact on the area of the vein wall in connection with which there is destruction of elastic and collagen fibers in it.

varicose veins

On the background of some diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, etc), similar to the pregnancy may change the hormonal status of the patient, why risk his development of varicose veins also increases. In addition to this it is added that the presence of chronic liver disease is also considered as a factor predisposing to the development of varicose veins. Such diseases include cirrhosis, hepatitis, etc ..

When considering the causes causing varicose veins, do not be amiss to reiterate the structural characteristics of the veins in the lower limbs, although in a slightly different form, which we have already seen how the mechanism that causes the development of this disease.

So, there are several systems of veins, a system of superficial veins which have large and small saphenous vein in this group, the deep venous system with its deep veins of the femur and tibia, as well as the large veins connecting the deep and superficial veins. In the appropriate conditions for the functioning of the outflow of blood in the legs is ensured through the deep venous system (90%) and through a system of superficial veins (10%). Ensure blood flow toward the heart and not in the opposite direction of such rate is due to the operation of the valves centered in the walls of blood vessels. Plays an important role and peculiarities of the muscle contraction, making it also ensure an adequate flow of blood. Worst promotion of the blood is in a standing position, related to inadequate or completely eliminate the movement of the muscles and their contraction. In this case, there occurs a congestion, pressure in the veins increases, causing expansion. All of this leads to valve insufficiency, as well as for incomplete closure of the valve leaflets, which the blood moves in the wrong direction, from the heart.

Especially quickly defeat the valves in the deep venous system, as they represent the majority of the load. Due to abnormal process of blood flow; deep veins are overloaded due to extra blood volume. In order to achieve the reduction of the excessive pressure, the outflow of blood in the superficial veins, which can be achieved thereby, that the process of communicating vessels. The superficial veins in the system is not intended that, after they took a large amount of blood. For this reason, their walls reach a state of distension that occurs with the formation of varices. Meanwhile, due to the fact that a greater volume of blood, which it will continue to move in the direction of deep veins valvular insufficiency develops communicating vessels, in which the horizontal flow of blood as deep and surface vessels. At the end, on the background of these processes, the venous insufficiency becomes chronic, it is also accompanied by marked edema, pain and venous ulcers.