Different diseases of the leg veins – consequence of numerous unfavorable factors, which affect the lower limbs of the human being. Knowledge of their symptoms, it is necessary to identify these diseases, to take measures for their treatment, prevention of serious complications. Varicose veins of the lower extremities, often develops gradually, at first not paying attention. However, the attentive attitude towards their own health will help you recognize the disease before it will cause problems. The main symptoms of varicose veins:
- pain in the legs;
- the feeling of fatigue severity;
- a lower tolerance of physical load on the legs;
- the formation of vascular pattern on the skin;
- the deterioration in the treatment of minor skin injuries;
- the pathological pigmentation of the skin.
The severity of these signs is different – it depends on the severity of the disease, the duration of the course of each patient. Depending on the severity of varicose veins of the lower extremities klassificeret her on several levels. Classification according to the level of compensation distinguishes three levels of classification on the basis of the flow characteristics of the symptoms – 6 stages with the specification of the complications.
The first (compensation) stage
At this stage, the symptoms of varicose vein disease is expressed very poorly. Anatomical symptoms of varicose veins of the lower extremities in this case are relatively small valve insufficiency in the deep veins of the legs. All violations of venous blood flow kompensiruet with the healthy veins are not affected.
In this stage the patient may experience pain in the legs in great physical activity. Symptoms of varicose veins of the lower extremities are extremely rare appear swollen. Most often, the patient simply notes that the fact that the legs were more tired in the evening. Visible symptoms of varicose veins of the lower extremities no.
Clinically, this stage of varicose disease of the lower extremities corresponds to the class 0 – symptoms absent during the inspection and palpation, the patient is without complaints. Recognize varicose veins on the legs during this stage, in this case, if you do an ultrasound, but because of the absence of complaints, it is very rarely prescribed. Treatment of varicose disease of the lower extremities at this stage, effectively changing the working conditions, the transition to a more healthy diet, wearing compression socks mild compression, moderate exercise.
The second phase of the
This phase is typified by more pronounced symptoms. Changes in the structure of the venous valves, which is more deep, so they have developed external signs of varicose veins, but does not lead to complications. Leg pain with varicose veins develops at this stage. Swellings appear almost every night, especially after a long stay on your feet in uncomfortable shoes.
At night, the patient noted numbness and cramps – often, and take for the first signs of varicose veins on the legs. In the morning a tingling, sensitivity, the appearance of the pathological pigmentation – signs of varicose veins deep veins of the lower extremities.
Out varicose veins, the symptoms, described above, shows the appearance of vascular pattern ("spider veins") on the skin, disorders of pigmentation. On varicose veins on the legs are often accompanied by disorders of the regeneration of skin injuries – cuts, scratches, bruises heal a lot longer than usual.
Clinical signs of varicose veins in the legs correspond to the four classes:
- S1 – the first signs of varicose veins – reticular veins ("spider veins" and "arteries");
- C2 – distinct venous pattern on the skin, which allows you to see how they appear enlarged veins;
- C3 – edema, it is often this function allows you to identify the varicose veins deep;
- C4 a is a subclass of varicose veins of the lower extremities, symptoms that affect different processes in the skin – pigmentation, the development of eczema.
As can be seen from the above, the signs of varicose veins in the legs, at this stage, are very diverse. The survey includes inspection and palpation, ultrasound examination of the veins of the lower extremities, biochemical blood analysis for the detection of blood clotting and risk of thrombosis.
Complications at this stage – swelling of the legs and feet, as well as the development of inflammatory complications of phlebitis and thrombophlebitis. The symptoms of this state, except the visible signs of varicose veins, the signs of reduced circulation in the legs.
Treatment of varicose veins at this stage – the use of drugs to remove blood clots, increase blood flow, strengthen the vascular walls. However, these methods reduce the symptoms of varicose veins on the legs, but do not cause regression of the disease. If the therapeutic techniques are ineffective, used surgical descriptions and photos on how to prepare for surgery, you can find on the Internet.
The third (decompensated) stage
Symptoms and treatment of varicose veins at this stage are the greatest complexity. If the patient does not pay attention to the first signs of varicose veins on the legs, not enter treatment, they are complications of the disease. Symptoms of varicose veins in the legs in this stage are particularly pronounced – pain in the legs is almost constant, sometimes so strongly, that it is not allowed to move about independently. Progresses the swelling, sometimes so much so that the varicose lymphatic vessels after lymph nodes on the surface of the skin.
The external signs of varicose veins on the legs are visible, sometimes nasty character, who stick out, scattering, dark brown pigmented spots, sores that often become inflamed and suppurative processes occurring. One of the characteristics of the signs of varicose eczema. Its first manifestations appear in the previous stage, but with decompensation reaches its maximum manifestation.
In this stage of the varicose veins, the symptoms, which manifest themselves most clearly, represents a serious danger to the health and sometimes the life of the patient. Pain in the legs, edema, paresthesia, numbness of the legs leads to the fact that the patient becomes unable to perform the work for which he worked.
Clinically varicose veins in the decompensated phase, corresponding to the three functional class – C4 b, which is characterized by degenerative changes in the subcutaneous tissue, C6 – active venous ulcers and C5 – ex trophic ulcers. Complications of decompensated varicose trophic ulcers, thrombophlebitis, bleeding and inflammation of the ulcers, in severe cases – gangrene.
The diagnosis of decompensated varicose veins, to put a very easily – a doctor will do during the inspection. Diagnostic measures, which aim to detect the degree of impaired blood flow in lower limbs and find the affected vein. For this purpose, ultrasound and if necessary MRI, venography, and other methods.
Treatment only operative. In vienna, in which is disrupted the flow of the blood, is removed under the ultrasonic control, but even in this case, the signs of varicose veins on the legs do not disappear completely. Operation requires training, but is done very quickly, after which the patient may already be activated. In the postoperative period, it is necessary to wear compressive underwear, a radical change in lifestyle and diet.
Complications that developed as a symptoms of varicose veins of the lower limbs, the treatment depends on the severity. Trophic ulcers without inflammation of the conservatively treated with antibiotics, medicines that accelerate the healing of wounds, and others. If the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions is low, subject to surgical treatment – ulcer excised within the healthy tissue, then hold the plastic skin.
If there is inflammation or bleeding, then surgery becomes the only effective way of treatment. Then follows the long postoperative period, which necessarily requires a radical change in the mode of life of the patient, to prevent a recurrence of the disease.
Despite the severity of the condition, one should not forget the importance of the preventive and conservative measures. Even at the severe stage of the varicose veins should be treated by taking drugs to strengthen the vascular walls, facilitate the flow of blood, thinning of blood. Determine the therapy needs a doctor.
Gels, ointments and creams for external use, effectively eliminating the symptoms of varicose veins on the legs in the earlier stages, should not be used, if they are defects of the skin, especially inflammation of the wound. Also the presence of small scratches or abrasions is a contraindication for their use.
Varicose veins can develop years or even decades, the first signs often occur at a young age, but remain without attention and treatment. In the early stages of varicose veins are asymptomatic, so patients rarely seek medical help during this period. Later, when the symptoms become apparent, the therapeutic measures can only stop the progression of the disease, but does not cause complete disappearance of symptoms.